Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2021)                   IEEPJ 2021, 3(3): 268-291 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Azimpour A, Abdolrezapour P, Ahounbor S, Zarepour K. (2021). Accuracy or Bias: Judgment About Others’ Intelligence and Moral Identity in a Zero Acquaintance Condition. IEEPJ. 3(3), 268-291. doi:10.52547/ieepj.3.3.268
URL: http://ieepj.hormozgan.ac.ir/article-1-314-en.html
1- Salman Farsi University of Kazerun, Kazerun, Iran , a.azimpour@kazerunsfu.ac.ir
2- Salman Farsi University of Kazerun, Kazerun, Iran
Abstract:   (1960 Views)
Some studies have revealed that most individuals tend to concentrate on others’ morality and intelligence at their social perception. The present study aimed to examine the accuracy of these social perceptions in zero acquaintance condition. Nine female students who had high, low or average moral identity/intelligence were considered as targets and the short video clips of their lectures about the same nonrelated subject were presented to other students to judge about them through three studies (total N: 208). In the first study the judges (N: 98) have to guess and categorize the targets as highly or lowly moral and also as highly or lowly intelligent. In the second study the judges (N: 96) have to do it in a Likert scale from -5 to +5. In the third study the judges (N: 14) who were senior students of psychology do it with the Likert scale but after a group discussion about any targets. The findings indicated that the perceptions were full of above-than-chance inaccuracies which were consensus across the three studies. Considering the inaccurate positive account about many targets, accurate perceptions about highly moral/intelligent targets were explained by positive bias to targets than by actual accurate perception. Beyond such bias, there were some little traces of accuracy particularly in intelligence. It seems that due to many inaccuracies especially about morality, such little traces of accuracy are not much reliable for judgments in real settings with zero acquaintance.
Full-Text [PDF 591 kb]   (399 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Evolutionary Psychology
Received: 2021/03/5 | Accepted: 2021/08/13 | Published: 2021/09/1

1. Ambady, N., Bernieri, F. J., &Richeson, J. A. (2000). Toward a histology of social behavior: Judgmental accuracy from thin slices of the behavioral stream. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, 32, 201-271. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(00)80006-4 [DOI:10.1016/S0065-2601(00)80006-4]
2. Aquino, K. & Reed, A. (2002). The Self-Importance of Moral Identity. Journal of personality and social psychology,83)6(, 1423-1440. http://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.83.6.1423 [DOI:10.1037//0022-3514.83.6.1423]
3. Aquino, K. Reed, A. Thau, S. & Freeman, D. (2007). A grotesque and dark beauty: How moral identity and mechanisms of moral disengagement influence cognitive and emotional reactions to war. Journal of experimental social psychology, 43, 385-392. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2006.05.013 [DOI:10.1016/j.jesp.2006.05.013]
4. Aquino, K., Freeman, D., Reed, A., Lim, V. K. G., &Felps, W. (2009). Testing a social-cognitive model of moral behavior: The interactive influence of situations and moral identity centrality. Journal of personality and social psychology, 97, 123-141. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0015406 [DOI:10.1037/a0015406]
5. Azimpour, A. (2019). Moral-related Variables and Mental Health: A correlational Study. Iranian evolutionary and educational psychology Journal, 1(2).http://doi.org/10.21859/IEEPJ.1.2.135 [DOI:10.29252/IEEPJ.1.2.135]
6. Azimpour, A., Neasi A. Shehni-Yailagh M., Arshadi N., & Beshlideh K. (2014). Validation the measure of "the self-importance of moral identity" on university students. Journal of Personality and individual differences (in Persian), 3(4), 19-38.
7. Azimpour, A., Neasi A. Shehni-Yailagh, M., Arshadi, N., & Beshlideh, K. (2012a). Designing and testing a model of important precedents of prosocial behavior in student of Shahid Chamran university of Ahvaz. Journal of psychological achievements (in Persian),19(3), 15-44.
8. Azimpour, A., Neasi A., Shehni-Yailagh M., & Arshadi, N. (2012b). Validation of "Prosocial Tendencies Measure" in Iranian University Students. Journal of Life Science and Biomedicine, 2(2), 34-42.
9. Azimpour, A., Shehni-Yailagh, M., Esfandiyari, F., Abdollahi, S., & Eslamiyeh, F.(2017). The relationship between Intelligence, prosocial moral reasoning and moral identity among the Iranian university students. IPA international journal of psychology, 11 (1), 151-181.
10. Baron, R. A., Byrne, D. E. & Branscombe, N. R., (2006). Social psychology. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
11. Baschetti, R. (2007). Evolutionary, neurobiological, gene-based solution of ideological "puzzle" of human altruism and cooperation. Medical hypotheses, 69(2), 241- 249. [DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2007.03.020]
12. Benabou, R. (2013). Groupthink: collective delusions in organizations and markets. Review of economic studies, 80, 429-462.http:// doi.org/10.1093/restud/rds030 [DOI:10.1093/restud/rds030]
13. Berry, D. S. (1990). Taking people at face value: Evidence for the kernel of truth hypothesis. Social Cognition, 8, 343-361. http://doi.org/10.1521/soco.1990.8.4.343 [DOI:10.1521/soco.1990.8.4.343]
14. Blanck, P. D., Rosenthal, R., Snodgrass, S. E., DePaulo, B. M., & Zuckerman, M. (1981). Sex differences in eavesdropping on nonverbal cues: developmental changes. Journal of personality and social psychology,41(2), 391-396. http://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.41.2.391 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.41.2.391]
15. Borkenau, P. &Liebler, A. (1993). Convergence of stranger ratings of personality and intelligence with self-ratings, partner ratings, and measured intelligence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,65(3), 546-553.http://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.65.3.546 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.65.3.546]
16. Brambilla, M., Rusconi, P., Sacchi, S., & Cherubini, P. (2011). Looking for honesty: The primary role of morality (vs. sociability and competence) in information gathering. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41(2), 135-143. doi:10.1002/ejsp.744 [DOI:10.1002/ejsp.744]
17. Brambilla, M., Sacchi, S., Rusconi, R., Cherubini, P., &Yzerbyt, V. Y. (2012). You want to give a good impression? Be honest! Moral traits dominate group impression formation. British journal of social psychology, 51, 149-166. [DOI:10.1111/j.2044-8309.2010.02011.x]
18. Burgoon, J. K. & Le Poire, B. A. (1999). Nonverbal cues and interpersonal judgments: Participant and observer perceptions of intimacy, dominance, composure, and formality. Communication Monographs,66(2), 105-124.http://doi.org/10.1080/03637759909376467 [DOI:10.1080/03637759909376467]
19. Cattell R. B. &Cattell A. K. S. (1973). Handbook for the Individual or Group Culture-Fair Intelligence Test: Scale 3. IPAT,Champaign, Ill. [DOI:10.1007/978-94-011-6129-9_10]
20. Cattell, R. B. (1957). Culture fair intelligence test, a measure of ''g": Scale 3 forms A and B (high school pupils and adults of superior intelligence). Savoy, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.
21. Christy, A. G., Kim, J., Vess, M., Schlegel, R., J. & Hicks, J. A. (2017). The reciprocal relationship between perceptions of moral goodness and knowledge of others' true selves. Social psychological and personality science, 8(8). 1-8. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/1948550617693061 [DOI:10.1177/1948550617693061]
22. Claidière, N. & Whiten, A. (2012). Integrating the study of conformity and culture in humans and nonhuman animals. Psychological Bulletin, 138 (1).126-145. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025868 [DOI:I0.1037/a0025868]
23. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
24. Davis, J. H. (1973). Group decision and social interaction: A theory of socialdecision schemes. Psychological review, 80(2), 97-125. [DOI:10.1037/h0033951]
25. DeBruin, E. N. M., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (1999). Impression formation and cooperativebehaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 305 - 328. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(199903/05)29:2/3<305::AID-EJSP929>3.0.CO;2-R https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(199903/05)29:2/3<305::AID-EJSP929>3.0.CO;2-R [DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(199903/05)29:2/33.0.CO;2-R]
26. DeGroot, T., Gooty, J. (2009). Can nonverbal cues be used to make meaningful personality attribution in employment interviews? Journal of business and psychology, 24, 170-192. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-009-9098-0 [DOI:101007/s10869-009-9098-0]
27. Delgado, M. R., Frank, R. H., & Phelps, E. A. (2005). Perception of moral character modulate the neural system of reward during the trust game. Nature neuroscience, 8 (11), 1611-1618. [DOI:10.1038/nn1575]
28. Doris, J., Stich, S., Phillips, J. and Walmsley, L. (2020). Moral psychology: Empirical approaches. In E N. Zalta (Eds.), Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2020/entries/moral-psych-emp/
29. Dweck, C S., Chiu, C, Hong, Y. (1995). Implicit theories and their role in judgments and reactions: A world from two perspectives. Psychological inquiry, 6, (4), 267-285. https://doi.org/ 10.1207/s15327965pli0604_1 [DOI:10.1207/s15327965pli0604_1]
30. Etcoff. N. L., Ekman. P., Magee, J. J., & Frank, M. G. (2000). Lie detection and language comprehension; People who can't understand words are better at picking up lies about emotions. Nature, 405, 139-141. [DOI:10.1038/35012129]
31. Fiske, S. T. (1993). Social cognition and social perception. In 1. W. Porter & M. R. Rosenzwein (Eds.), Annual review of psychology, 44, 155- 194. [DOI:10.1146/annurev.ps.44.020193.001103]
32. Funder, D. C. (1995). On the accuracy of personality judgment: A realistic approach. Psychological Review, 102, 652-670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.102.4.652 [DOI:10.1037/0033-295X.102.4.652]
33. García, M. F., Posthuma, R. A. & Colella, A. (2008). Fit perceptions in the employment interview: the role of similarity, liking, and expectations. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 81, 173-189. http:// doi.org/10.1348/096317907X238708 [DOI:10.1348/096317907X238708]
34. Grèzes, J., Frith, C. & Passingham, R. E. (2004). Brain mechanisms for inferring deceit in the actions of others. The journal of neuroscience, 24(24), 5500 -5505. [DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0219-04.2004]
35. Hunter, J. H., Gerbing, D. W. &Boster, F. J. (1982).Machiavellian beliefs and personality: Construct invalidity of the Machiavellianism dimension. Journal of personality and social psychology, 43 (6), 1293-1305 https://doi.org/ 10.1037/0022-3514.43.06.1293 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.43.6.1293 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.43.06.1293]
36. Jussim, L. (1991). Social perception and social reality: A reflection-construction model. Psychological Review, 98, 54-73. https://doi.org/ 10.1037/0033-295X.98.1.54 [DOI:10.1037/0033-295X.98.1.54]
37. Jussim, L. (2005). Accuracy in social perception: criticisms, controversies, critical, components, and cognitive processes. Advances in experimental social psychology, 37, 1-93. [DOI:10.1016/S0065-2601(05)37001-8]
38. Kalat, J. W. (2007). Biological psychology. USA: Thompson learning, Inc.
39. Lieberman, M. D. (2007). Social cognitive neuroscience: A review of core processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 259-89. [DOI:10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085654]
40. Linke, L., Saribay, S. A., &Kleisner, K. (2016). Perceived trustworthiness is associated with position in a corporate hierarchy. Personality and Individual Differences, 99, 22 27. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.04.076 [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2016.04.076]
41. Mahmud, Y. & Swami, V. (2010). The influence of the hijab (Islamic head-cover) on perceptions of women's attractiveness and intelligence. Body Image, 7, 90-93. [DOI:10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.09.003]
42. Martijn, C., Spears, R., Van der Pligt, J., &Jakobs, E. (1992). Negativity and positivity effects in person-perception and inference: Ability versus morality. European Journal of Social Psychology, 22, 453 - 463. [DOI:10.1002/ejsp.2420220504]
43. McArthur, L. Z., & Baron, R. M.(1983). Toward an ecological theoryof social perception. Psychological Review, 90, 215-238. [DOI:10.1037/0033-295X.90.3.215]
44. Morgeson, F. P., & Campion, M. A. (1997). Social and cognitive sources of potential inaccuracy in job analysis. Journal of applied psychology,82(5), 627-655. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.82.5.627 [DOI:10.1037/0021-9010.82.5.627]
45. Murphy, N. A. (2007). Appearing Smart: The Impression management of intelligence, person perception accuracy, and behavior in social interaction. Personality and social psychology bulletin,33 (3). 325-339. [DOI:10.1177/0146167206294871]
46. Murphy, N. A., Hall, J. A. & Colvin, J. A. (2003). Accurate intelligence assessments in social interactions: mediators and gender effects. Journal of personality,71(3), 465- 493. [DOI:10.1111/1467-6494.7103008]
47. Najarian, B., & Soudani, M. (2001). Construction and validation of a scale for the measurement of reality distortion. Journal of education and psychology of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz (in Persian), 3 (8), 99-114.
48. Nater, C. & Zell, E. (2015). Accuracy of social perception: An integration and review of meta-analyses. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 9 (9), 481-494, DOI: 10.1111/spc3.12194 [DOI:10.1111/spc3.12194]
49. Park, W.W. (1990). A review of research on groupthink. Journal of behavioral decision making, 3,229-245. [DOI:10.1002/bdm.3960030402]
50. Piliavin, J., A., & Charng, H-W., (1990). Altruism: a review of recent theory and research. Annual review of sociology, 16, 27-65.https://doi.org/ 10.1146/annurev.so.16.080190.000331 [DOI:10.1146/annurev.so.16.080190.000331]
51. Powell, D. M. & Goffin, R. D. (2009). Assessing personality in the employment interview: the impact of training on rater accuracy. Human performance, 22, 450-465. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959280903248450 [DOI:10.1080/08952809280903248450]
52. Reynolds, W. M. (1982). Development of reliable and valid short forms of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 119-125. https://doi.org/ 10.1002/1097-4679(198201)38:13.0.CO;2-I https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(198201)38:1<119::AID-JCLP2270380118>3.0.CO;2-I [DOI:10.1002/1097-4679(198201)38:13.0.CO;2-I]
53. Rule, N. O., Krendl, A. C., Ivcevic, Z., & Ambady, N. (2013). Accuracy and consensus in judgments of trustworthiness from faces: Behavioral and neural correlates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(3), 409-426. doi:10.1037/a0031050 [DOI:10.1037/a0031050]
54. Schmid Mast, M., Bangerte, A., Bulliard, C. &Aerni, G. (2011). How accurate are recruiters' first impressions of applicants in employment interviews? International journal of selection and assessment, 19 (2), 198-208. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1468-2389.2011.00547.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1468-2389.2011.00547.x]
55. Sunstein, C. R. (2002). The law of group polarization. The journal of political philosophy, 10(2), 175-195. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/1467-9760.00148 [DOI:10.1111/1467-9760.00148]
56. Talamas, S. N., Mavor, K. I., &Perrett, D. I. (2016). Blinded by beauty: Attractiveness bias and accurate perceptions of academic performance. Plos one, 11(2), 1-18. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0148284]
57. Tappin, B. M., & McKay, R. T. (2017). The illusion of moral superiority. Social psychological and personality science, 8(6), 623-631. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/1948550616673878 [DOI:10.1177/1948550616673878]
58. Todorov, A., Pakrashi, M., & Oosterhof, N. N. (2009). Evaluating faces on trustworthiness after minimal time exposure. Social Cognition, 27, 813-833. doi:10.1521/soco.2009.27.6.813 [DOI:10.1521/soco.2009.27.6.813]
59. Todorov, A., Said, C. P., Engell, A. D., & Oosterhof, N. N. (2008). Understanding evaluation of faces on social dimensions. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(12), 455-460. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2008.10.001 [DOI:10.1016/j.tics.2008.10.001]
60. Verardi, S., Dahourou, D., Ah-Kion, G., Bhowon, U., Tseung, C. N., Amoussou-Yeye, D., Adjahouisso, M., Bouatta, C., Cissé, D. D., Mbodji, M., Barry. O., Minga, D., Ondongo, F., Tsokini, D., Rigozzi, C., Meyer de Stadelhofen, F., & Rossier, J. (2010). Psychometric properties of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale in eight African countries and Switzerland. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 41(1), 19-34. [DOI:10.1177/0022022109348918]
61. Vogt, S., Efferson, C., & Fehr, E. (2013). Can we see inside? Predicting strategic behavior given limited information. Evolution and Human Behavior, 34(4), 258-264. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2013.03.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2013.03.003]
62. Wojciszke, B. (2005). Morality and competence in person- and self-perception. European review of social psychology, 16, 155 - 188. http://doi.org/10.1080/10463280500229619 [DOI:10.1080/10463280500229619]
63. Wojciszke, B., Bazinska, R. & Jaworski, M. (1998). On the dominance of moral categoriesin impression formation. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 24, 1251-1263. [DOI:10.1177/01461672982412001]
64. Wolf, S. (2007), Moral psychology and the unity of the virtues. Ratio; An international journal of analytic philosophy, 20 (2), 145-167. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1467-9329.2007.00354.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9329.2007.00354.x]
65. Yardi, S. & Boyd, D. (2010). Dynamic debates: an analysis of group polarization over time on twitter. Bulletin of science, technology &society, 30(5) 316 -327. [DOI:10.1177/0270467610380011]
66. YarMohammadian, A. (2007). Ability the Scale 3 of Cattell's intelligence test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure in identification of university students with exceptional talent. Journal of education and psychology of Isfahan University (in Persian), 3(1), 7, 77-94.
67. Zebrowitz, L. A., & Collins, M. A. (1997). Accurate social perception at zero acquaintance: The affordances of a Gibsonian approach. Personality and social psychology review, 1, 204-223.http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1207/s15327957pspr0103_2 [DOI:10.1207/s15327957pspr0103_2]
68. Zebrowitz, L. A., & Rhodes, G. (2004). Sensitivity to bad genes and the anomalous face overgeneralization effect: Cue validity, cue utilization, and accuracy in judging intelligence and health. Journal of nonverbal behavior, 28,167-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JONB.0000039648.30935.1b [DOI:10.1023/B:JONB.0000039648.30935.1b]
69. Zebrowitz, L. A., Kikuchi, M., & Fellous, J. (2007). Are effects of emotion expression on trait impressions mediated by babyfaceness? Evidence from connectionist modeling. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(5), 648-662. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167206297399 [DOI:10.1177/0146167206297399]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.