Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2021)                   IEEPJ 2021, 3(3): 319-331 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ehsani F, Jan-nesar Moghaddam Q. (2021). The Relationship between Willingness to Communicate, Locus of Control and Foreign Language Anxiety among Iranian EFL Learners. IEEPJ. 3(3), 319-331. doi:10.52547/ieepj.3.3.319
URL: http://ieepj.hormozgan.ac.ir/article-1-313-en.html
1- Payame Noor University, Fasa Center, Fasa, Iran , Ehsani.farzane@yahoo.com
2- Faculty member, Department of English Language and Literature, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran
Abstract:   (3269 Views)
This study started with the aim of exploring the relationship between willingness to communicate (WTC), foreign language anxiety (FL anxiety) and locus of control (LOC) among Iranian EFL learners. To conduct this study, a correlation-descriptive design was selected to achieve the objectives. The participants consisted of 80 intermediate male and female EFL learners randomly selected from among EFL students studying in different branches of Ibne Sina Language institute, Iran. At the beginning, the participants were asked to fill Rotter's (1966) Locus of Control Scale. One week later, Willingness to Communicate (WTC) Questionnaire was given to the participants to be filled by them. One week after that, the researcher gave FL Anxiety Questionnaire to the participants and asked them to fill it. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product-moment correlation test. The results showed that there was no relationship between WTC and LOC among Iranian EFL learners; there was a significant but negative correlation between WTC and FL anxiety; and LOC and FL anxiety were not significantly correlated.
Full-Text [PDF 425 kb]   (601 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Educational Psychology
Received: 2021/03/22 | Accepted: 2021/06/23 | Published: 2021/09/1

1. Ashraf, H., & Abtahi, T. (2014). On the relation of locus of control, social and cultural capital and oral proficiency achievement of EFL students: A case of Iranians in Mashhad. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 3 (2), 242-247. [DOI:10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.3n.2p.242]
2. Balla, A.A.S. (2017). Foreign language anxiety in Saudi classroom: A case study of Saudi tertiary female students in Prince Sattam University. English Language Teaching, 10 (5), 28-36. [DOI:10.5539/elt.v10n5p28]
3. Baran-Łucarz, M. (2014). The link between pronunciation anxiety and willingness to communicate in the foreign-language classroom: The Polish EFL context. Canadian Modern Language Review, 70(4), 445-473. [DOI:10.3138/cmlr.2666]
4. Bhatti, N., Memon, Sh., & Pathan, H. (2016). Investigating the perceptions of Pakistani English language learners on language learning anxiety in EFL classroom. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 7 (5), 23-34. [DOI:10.7575/aiac.alls.v.7n.5p.23]
5. Bozorgi, S. (2009). On the relationship between locus of control and the grade point average of the Iranian Azad University EFL students. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED505569.pdf
6. Burgoon, J. K. (1976). The unwillingness to communicate scale: Development and validation. Communication Monographs, 43(1), 60-96. [DOI:10.1080/03637757609375916]
7. Chalak, A., & Nasri, N. (2015). The interplay of locus of control, academic achievement, and biological variables among Iranian online EFL learners. International Journal of Cognitive and Language Sciences, 9 (8), 2651-2655.
8. Chalak, A., & Nasri, N., & HeidariTabrizi, H. (2014). The relationship between the types of locus of control and the academic achievement of Iranian online foreign language learners. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 9 (1), 50-56.
9. Chen, T.U., & Chang G.Y (2004). The relationship between Foreign language anxiety and learning difficulties. Foreign Language Ann, 37(2), 279-289. [DOI:10.1111/j.1944-9720.2004.tb02200.x]
10. Ghasemzadeh, A., & Saadat, M. (2011). Locus of control in Iranian university student and its relationship with academic achievement. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 2491 - 2496. [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.486]
11. Hashemi M., & Abbasi, M. (2013). The role of the teacher in alleviating anxiety in language classes. Int. Res. J. Appl.Basic Sci, 4(3), 640-646.
12. Hill, R. (2016). Locus of control, academic achievement, and discipline referrals. Murray State Theses and Dissertations. Paper 1.
13. Horwitz, E. K. (1988). The beliefs about language learning of beginning university foreign language students. Modern Lang. J, 72(2), 283-294. [DOI:10.1111/j.1540-4781.1988.tb04190.x]
14. Horwitz, E.K., Horwitz, M.B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132. [DOI:10.1111/j.1540-4781.1986.tb05256.x]
15. Kang, S.J. (2005). Dynamic emergence of situational willingness to communicate in a second language. System, 33(2), 277-292. [DOI:10.1016/j.system.2004.10.004]
16. Katirayifar, A.A., & Rezvani, E. (2017). The effects of Iranian EFL learners' locus of control (external vs. internal) on their test anxiety and test scores. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 6 (4), 57-66. [DOI:10.5861/ijrse.2016.1666]
17. Kruk, M. (2015). Variations in motivation, anxiety and boredom in learning English in Second Life. The EUROCALL Review, 23 (2), 25-39. [DOI:10.4995/eurocall.2016.5693]
18. Lefcourt, H. M. (2014). Locus of control: Current trends in theory & research. Psychology Press. [DOI:10.4324/9781315798813]
19. MacIntyre, P. D. (2007). Willingness to communicate in the second language: understanding the decision to speak as a volitional process. The Modern Language Journal, 91(4), 564-576. [DOI:10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00623.x]
20. MacIntyre, P. D., & Charos, C. (1996). Personality, attitudes, and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15(1), 3-26. [DOI:10.1177/0261927X960151001]
21. Manipuspika, Y.S. (2018). Correlation between anxiety and willingness to communicate in the Indonesian EFL context. Arab World English Journal, 9 (2), 200-217. [DOI:10.24093/awej/vol9no2.14]
22. McCroskey, J. C. (1997). Reliability and validity of the willingness to communicate scale. Communication Quarterly, 40, 16-25. [DOI:10.1080/01463379209369817]
23. McCroskey, J. C., & Baer, J. E. (1985). Willingness to communicate: The construct and its measurement. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association, Denver, Co.
24. McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (1990). Willingness to communicate: A cognitive view. In M. Booth-Butterfield (Ed.), Communication, cognition, and anxiety. USA:
25. Mohammed Sadiq, J. (2017). Anxiety in English language learning: A case study of English language learners in Saudi Arabia. English Language Teaching, 10 (7), 1-7. [DOI:10.5539/elt.v10n7p1]
26. Mousavi, S.V., Rezaei, S., Atefi Karajvandi, S., Javanparast, H. (2018). The moderating role of internal-external locus of control in the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and social anxiety in adolescents. Journal of Psychology, 22(2), 172-187.
27. Pattapong, K. (2010). Willingness to communicate in a second language: A qualitative study of issues affecting Thai EFL learners from students' and teachers' points of view. Doctoral dissertation, Louisiana State University, Louisiana, U.S.A.
28. Rahimi, A., & Askari Bigdeli, R. (2014). Iranian EFL learners at loggerheads with perceived social support. Iranian Journal of Research in English Language Teaching, 1(3), 31-38.
29. Rotter, J. (1966). The social learning theory. Retrieved from http://psych.fullerton.edu/jmearns/rotter.htm
30. Sage.
31. Shao, K., Yu, W., & Ji, Zh. (2013). An exploration of Chinese EFL students' emotional intelligence and foreign language anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 97 (4), 917-929. [DOI:10.1111/j.1540-4781.2013.12042.x]
32. Talebi Rezaabadi, O. (2016). The relationships between social class, listening test anxiety and test scores. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 7 (5), 147-156. [DOI:10.7575/aiac.alls.v.7n.5p.147]
33. Valadi, A., Rezaee, A., & Kogani Baharvand, P. (2015). The relationship between Language Learners' Willingness to Communicate and Their Oral Language Proficiency with Regard to Gender Differences. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 4(5), 147-154. [DOI:10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.4n.5p.147]
34. Williams, M. & Burden, R. (2002). Psychology for Language Teachers. Cambridge University Press.
35. Wu, C. P., & Lin, H.J. (2016). Learning strategies in alleviating English writing anxiety for English language learners (ELLs) with limited English proficiency (LEP). English Language Teaching, 9 (9), 52-63. [DOI:10.5539/elt.v9n9p52]
36. Young, D.J. (1991). Creating a low-anxiety classroom environment: What does the language anxiety research suggest? Modern Language Journal, 75 (1), 425-439. [DOI:10.1111/j.1540-4781.1991.tb05378.x]
37. Yousefi, M., & Kasaian, R. (2014). EFL learners' willingness to communicate: The interplay between language learning anxiety and language proficiency. International Journal of English Linguistics, 11(2), 23-34.
38. Zarrinabadi, N., & Haidary, T. (2014). Willingness to communicate and identity styles of Iranian EFL learners. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 2010 - 2017. [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.636]
39. Zhang, R., & Zhong, J. (2012). The hindrance of doubt: Causes of language anxiety. Int. J. English Linguist, 2 (3), 27-33. [DOI:10.5539/ijel.v2n3p27]
40. Zohrabi, M., &Yousefi, M. (2016). The relationship between reflective teaching, willingness to communicate (WTC), and intrinsic motivation of Iranian advanced learners. International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL), 4(2), 12-28. [DOI:10.20431/2347-3134.0402003]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.