Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2021)                   Iranian Evolutionary and Educational Psychology 2021, 3(3): 225-233 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Yousefi Afrashteh M, Koohneshin Seighalani M. Comparing The Effect of Virtual and Face-to-Face Education on Learning Motivation and Procrastination in Elementary School Students During the Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19). Iranian Evolutionary and Educational Psychology. 2021; 3 (3) :225-233
URL: http://ieepj.hormozgan.ac.ir/article-1-292-en.html
1- University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
2- Payame Noor University, Qazvin Center, Qazvin , Iran
Abstract:   (2863 Views)
In the current situation, due to the spread of the coronavirus, the use of virtual education has expanded. The aim of this study is to compare the learning motivation and academic procrastination of students with face-to-face and virtual education in an applied and quasi-experimental method. The study population is all primary school students in Somehsara, city, Iran in the first half of the academic year 1300-1400, from which 30 girls and 30 boys are selected by purposive sampling from rural areas. Data are collected through David Tuckman (2001), Academic Procrastination Questionnaire and Power, China and Objective Learning Motivation (2005). The results of analysis of covariance with spss-26 software show that the mean of both face-to-face and virtual groups in the pretest is equal. However, post-test type of training on learning motivation (F = 54.24) and procrastination (F = 42.44) is significant at the error level of less than 0.01. However, gender as a second independent variable and in interaction with the independent variable of education has no effect on academic motivation and academic procrastination. Based on these results, it can be said that although the use of virtual education is inevitable, but its long-term use reduces academic motivation and increases the procrastination of elementary school students.
Full-Text [PDF 434 kb]   (797 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Educational Psychology
Received: 2021/03/14 | Accepted: 2021/06/12 | Published: 2021/09/1

1. Azlan, C. A., Wong, J. H. D., Tan, L. K., Huri, M. S. N. A., Ung, N. M., Pallath, V., ... & Ng, K. H. (2020). Teaching and learning of postgraduate medical physics using Internet-based e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic-A case study from Malaysia. Physica Medica, 80, 10-16. [DOI:10.1016/j.ejmp.2020.10.002]
2. Basco, M.R., (2010).The procrastinator's Guide to Getting Things Done. Printed in the United States of America, 72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012.
3. Boice, R., (1996). Procrastination and Blocking: A Novel, Practical Approach. Printed in the United States of America.
4. Concepcion, A., (2020).Temporal Discounting and the Assessment and Treatment of Academic Procrastination. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Applied Behavior Analysis Department of Child and Family Studies College of Behavioral and Community Sciences University of South Florida.
5. Custer, N.R., (2016). TEST ANXIETY AND ACADEMIC PROCRASTINATION AMONG PRE-LICENSURE NURSING STUDENTS A Dissertation Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies and Research in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy. Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
6. Deiz M, Tras Z, Aydogan D. (2009). An investigation of academic procrastination, locus of control, and emotional intelligence. J Educ Sci Theory Pract. 2009; 9:623-32.
7. Dhawan, Sh., (2020). Online Learning: A Panacea in the Time of COVID-19 Crisis. Journal of Educational Technology Systems 2020, Vol. 49(1) 5-22 [DOI:10.1177/0047239520934018]
8. Ditta, A. S., Strickland-Hughes, C. M., Cheung, C., & Wu, R. (2020). Exposure to information increases motivation to learn more. Learning and Motivation, 72, 101668. [DOI:10.1016/j.lmot.2020.101668]
9. DuQuette, J.P., (2017). CYPRIS VILLAGE: LANGUAGE LEARNING IN VIRTUAL WORLDS (In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education). A Dissertation Submitted to the Temple University Graduate Board.
10. Ellis, A., & Knaus, W.J., (1979). Overcoming Procrastination or How to Think and Act Rationally in Spite of Life's Inevitable Hassles. New York 10019. [DOI:10.7591/9781501727146]
11. Fandiño, F. G. E., Muñoz, L. D., & Velandia, A. J. S. (2019). Motivation and E-Learning English as a foreign language: A qualitative study. Heliyon, 5(9), e02394. [DOI:10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02394]
12. Islas, M. S. (2018). An exploration of the triadic model of procrastination: arousal, avoidant, and decisional procrastination in adults (Doctoral dissertation).
13. Jaggars, S. S. (2014). Choosing between online and face-to-face courses: Community college student voices. American Journal of Distance Education, 28(1), 27-38. [DOI:10.1080/08923647.2014.867697]
14. Karimi Moonaghi, H., & Baloochi Beydokhti, T. (2017). Academic procrastination and its characteristics: A Narrative Review. Future of medical education journal, 7(2), 43-50 (in Persian).
15. Kim, C., Park, S. W., & Cozart, J. (2014). Affective and motivational factors of learning in online mathematics courses. British Journal of Educational Technology, 45(1), 171-185. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01382.x]
16. Kljajic, K., & Gaudreau, P. (2018). Does it matter if students procrastinate more in some courses than in others? A multilevel perspective on procrastination and academic achievement. Learning and Instruction, 58, 193-200. [DOI:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2018.06.005]
17. Li, L., Gao, H., & Xu, Y. (2020). The mediating and buffering effect of academic self-efficacy on the relationship between smartphone addiction and academic procrastination. Computers & Education, 159, 104001. [DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2020.104001]
18. Liu, I. F. (2020). The impact of extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, and social self-efficacy on English competition participation intentions of pre-college learners: Differences between high school and vocational students in Taiwan. Learning and Motivation, 72, 101675. [DOI:10.1016/j.lmot.2020.101675]
19. Mishra, L., Gupta, T., & Shree, A. (2020). Online teaching-learning in higher education during lockdown period of COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 1, 100012. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijedro.2020.100012]
20. Molnar, A., Miron, G., Elgeberi, N., Barbour, M. K., Huerta, L., Shafer, S. R., & Rice, J. K. (2019). Virtual Schools in the US 2019. National Education Policy Center.
21. Moqaddas Bayat, M. R. (2003). Standardization of Takman procrastination test for students. Master's Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Roodehen Branch (in Persian).
22. Murayama, K., FitzGibbon, L., & Sakaki, M. (2019). Process account of curiosity and interest: A reward-learning perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 31(4), 875-895. [DOI:10.1007/s10648-019-09499-9]
23. Oga-Baldwin, W. Q., & Fryer, L. K. (2020). Profiles of language learning motivation: Are new and own languages different? Learning and Individual Differences, 79, 101852. [DOI:10.1016/j.lindif.2020.101852]
24. Olson, M. H. (2015). Introduction to theories of learning. Translate by aliakbar seyf, Tehran: doran. (In Persian). [DOI:10.4324/9781315664965]
25. Rajaei Harandi, S. R. (2015). Effects of e-learning on Students' Motivation. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 181, 423-430. [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.905]
26. Rovai, A., Ponton, M., Wighting, M., & Baker, J. (2007). A comparative analysis of student motivation in traditional classroom and e-learning courses. International Journal on E-learning, 6(3), 413-432.
27. Samavi, S. A., Ebrahimi, K., & Javdan, M. (2017). Relationship between academic engagements, self-efficacy and academic motivation with academic achievement among high school students in Bandar Abbas. Biquarterly Journal of Cognitive Strategies in Learning, 4(7), 71-92(in Persian).
28. Samavi, S. A., Javidi, H., Kazemi, S., & Bagholi, H. (2020). Investigating the Impact of Teaching Based on Flipped Learning on the Academic Achievement of Sixth-Grade Students. Iranian Evolutionary and Educational Psychology Journal, 2(2), 89-97. [DOI:10.29252/ieepj.2.2.89]
29. Santamaría-Bonfil, G., Ibáñez, M. B., Pérez-Ramírez, M., Arroyo-Figueroa, G., & Martínez-Álvarez, F. (2020). Learning analytics for student modeling in virtual reality training systems: Lineworkers case. Computers & Education, 151, 103871. [DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2020.103871]
30. Seif, A. (2019). Modern educational psychology, Tehran: Dowran Publication (in Persian).
31. Singh, V., & Thurman, A. (2019). How many ways can we define online learning? A systematic literature review of definitions of online learning (1988-2018). American Journal of Distance Education, 33(4), 289-306. [DOI:10.1080/08923647.2019.1663082]
32. Solomon, L. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(4), 503-509. [DOI:10.1037/0022-0167.31.4.503]
33. Tan, C. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on student motivation, community of inquiry and learning performance. Asian Education and Development Studies. [DOI:10.1108/AEDS-05-2020-0084]
34. Tsai, C., & Shen, P. (2009). Applying web-enabled self-regulated learning and problem-based learning with initiation to involve low-achieving students in learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(6), 1189-1194 [DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2009.05.013]
35. Tuan, H. L., Chin, C. C., & Shieh, S. H. (2005). The development of a questionnaire to measure students' motivation towards science learning. International journal of science education, 27(6), 639-654. [DOI:10.1080/0950069042000323737]
36. Tuckman, B. W. (1991). The development and concurrent validity of the procrastination scale. Educational and psychological measurement, 51(2), 473-480. [DOI:10.1177/0013164491512022]
37. Wenzlau, K. (2019). Teaching Practices: A Qualitative Case Study on the Differentiated Instructional Practices Used in Teaching in a Virtual High School Classroom (Doctoral dissertation, Grand Canyon University).
38. Won, S., & Shirley, L. Y. (2018). Relations of perceived parental autonomy support and control with adolescents' academic time management and procrastination. Learning and Individual Differences, 61, 205-215. [DOI:10.1016/j.lindif.2017.12.001]
39. Yu, H., Sirsat, S. A., & Madera, J. M. (2018). Enhancing hospitality students' motivation to learn food safety knowledge using tablet personal computer (TPC)-based simulation game class activity. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 23, 82-94. [DOI:10.1016/j.jhlste.2018.08.002]
40. Ziegler, N., & Opdenakker, M. C. (2018). The development of academic procrastination in first-year secondary education students: The link with metacognitive self-regulation, self-efficacy, and effort regulation. Learning and Individual Differences, 64, 71-82. [DOI:10.1016/j.lindif.2018.04.009]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Evolutionary and Educational Psychology Journal

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb