Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2022)                   Iranian Evolutionary and Educational Psychology 2022, 4(2): 228-243 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mehrabian N, Salehi H, Tabatabaei O, Vahid-Dastjerdi H. EFL Teachers’ Resilience Prediction Based on Academic Self-Efficacy, Problem Solving Skills, and Metacognitive Skills. Iranian Evolutionary and Educational Psychology 2022; 4 (2) :228-243
URL: http://ieepj.hormozgan.ac.ir/article-1-450-en.html
1- English Department, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
Abstract:   (619 Views)
Teachers’ resilience is their perception that they are able to adapt to the difficult teaching situations, deal with obstacles, and maintain their dedication to the profession. It has been conceived as one of the most important predictors of practice teaching in ELT research, which can be influenced by various factors. This study aimed, firstly, to examine the relationship between EFL teachers’ resilience and their academic self-efficacy, problem solving skills, and metacognitive skills, and secondly, to explore the prediction of EFL teachers’ resilience by these three variables. The study was conducted on a sample of 100 EFL teachers (50 males and 50 females) teaching English at three private language institutes of Tehran, Iran. The whole population of the study included 140 among which 100 were selected through Krejcie and Morgan's (1970) values and by convenience sampling. Four questionnaires namely “Resilience Scale (RS)”, “Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES)”, “Problem Solving Skills Scale (PSSS)”, and “Metacognitive Skills Scale (MSS)”, were administered to EFL teachers simultaneously. The data collected were analyzed through Pearson product-moment correlation, regression, and one-way analysis of covariance (one-way ANCOVA). The results showed a positive and strong significant relationship between male and female EFL teachers’ resilience and their problem solving skills [r = .94; p = .00] and metacognitive skills [r = .93; p = .00], as well as a positive and slight significant correlation between EFL teachers’ resilience and their academic self-efficacy [r = .29; p = .00]. However, no significant difference was found between male and female EFL teachers’ resilience affected by academic self-efficacy, problem solving skills, and metacognitive skills. Consequently, all the three variables of the study could significantly predict EFL teachers’ resilience [F (3.96) = 569.49; p = .00]. The findings imply that EFL teachers’ resilience should be further researched in an EFL context, particularly through experimental studies in which the development of resilience can be investigated by an intervention that can be a teacher education program.
Full-Text [PDF 692 kb]   (216 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Educational Psychology
Received: 2022/01/6 | Accepted: 2022/02/9 | Published: 2022/05/31

1. Abedi, J., & Gándara, P. (2006). Performance of English language learners as a subgroup in large‐scale assessment: Interaction of research and policy. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 25(4), 36-46. [DOI:10.1111/j.1745-3992.2006.00077.x]
2. Agran, M., Blanchard, C., Wehmeyer, M., & Hughes, C. (2002). Increasing the problem-solving skills of students with developmental disabilities participating in general education. Remedial and Special Education, 23(5), 279-288. [DOI:10.1177/07419325020230050301]
3. Altindağ, M. (2008). Hacettepe üniversitesi eğitim fakültesi öğrencilerinin yürütücü biliş becerileri. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü,
4. ALTINDAĞ, M., & SENEMOĞLU, N. (2013). Metacognitive skills scale. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 28(28-1), 15-26.
5. Bandera, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. A Social Cognitive Theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
6. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191. [DOI:10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191]
7. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American psychologist, 37(2), 122. [DOI:10.1037/0003-066X.37.2.122]
8. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control: WH Freemann.
9. Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual review of psychology, 52(1), 1-26. [DOI:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.1]
10. Beltman, S. (2021). Understanding and Examining Teacher Resilience from Multiple Perspectives. In Cultivating Teacher Resilience (pp. 11-26): Springer, Singapore. [DOI:10.1007/978-981-15-5963-1_2]
11. Callahan, R. M. (2005). Tracking and high school English learners: Limiting opportunity to learn. American Educational Research Journal, 42(2), 305-328. [DOI:10.3102/00028312042002305]
12. Chaudhry, N., & Rasool, G. (2012). A case study on improving problem solving skills of undergraduate computer science students. World Applied Sciences Journal, 20(1), 34-39.
13. Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor‐Davidson resilience scale (CD‐RISC). Depression and anxiety, 18(2), 76-82. [DOI:10.1002/da.10113]
14. Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement. education policy analysis archives, 8, 1. [DOI:10.14507/epaa.v8n1.2000]
15. Darling-Hammond, L., & Sykes, G. (2003). Wanted, a national teacher supply policy for education: The right way to meet the" highly qualified teacher" challenge. education policy analysis archives, 11, 33. [DOI:10.14507/epaa.v11n33.2003]
16. Derakhshan, A., Coombe, C., Zhaleh, K., & Tabatabaeian, M. (2020). Examining the Roles of Continuing Professional Development Needs and Views of Research in English Language Teachers' Success. TESL-EJ, 24(3), n3.
17. Fathi, J., & Saeedian, A. (2020). A structural model of teacher self-efficacy, resilience, and burnout among Iranian EFL teachers. Iranian Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 9(2), 14-28.
18. Galante, J., Dufour, G., Vainre, M., Wagner, A. P., Stochl, J., Benton, A., . . . Jones, P. B. (2018). A mindfulness-based intervention to increase resilience to stress in university students (the Mindful Student Study): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Public Health, 3(2), e72-e81. [DOI:10.1016/S2468-2667(17)30231-1]
19. Goddard, J. T., & Foster, R. Y. (2001). The experiences of neophyte teachers: A critical constructivist assessment. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(3), 349-365. [DOI:10.1016/S0742-051X(00)00062-7]
20. Hacker, D. J. (1998). Definitions and empirical foundations: Routledge.
21. Hargreaves, A., & Fink, D. (2012). Sustainable leadership (Vol. 6): John Wiley & Sons.
22. Henderson, N., & Milstein, M. M. (2003). Resiliency in schools: Making it happen for students and educators: Corwin Press.
23. Heppner, P. P., & Petersen, C. H. (1982). The development and implications of a personal problem-solving inventory. Journal of counseling psychology, 29(1), 66. [DOI:10.1037/0022-0167.29.1.66]
24. Hirschkorn, M. (2009). Student-teacher relationships and teacher induction: Ben's story. Teacher Development, 13(3), 205-217. [DOI:10.1080/13664530903335566]
25. Howard, S., & Johnson, B. (2004). Resilient teachers: Resisting stress and burnout. Social Psychology of Education, 7(4), 399-420. [DOI:10.1007/s11218-004-0975-0]
26. Hultell, D., Melin, B., & Gustavsson, J. P. (2013). Getting personal with teacher burnout: A longitudinal study on the development of burnout using a person-based approach. Teaching and Teacher Education, 32, 75-86. [DOI:10.1016/j.tate.2013.01.007]
27. Irwanto, I., Rohaeti, E., & Prodjosantoso, A. (2018). A survey analysis of pre-service chemistry teachers' critical thinking skills. MIER Journal of Educational Studies Trends and Practices, 57-73. [DOI:10.52634/mier/2018/v8/i1/1423]
28. Jacobs, J. E., & Paris, S. G. (1987). Children's metacognition about reading: Issues in definition, measurement, and instruction. Educational psychologist, 22(3-4), 255-278. [DOI:10.1080/00461520.1987.9653052]
29. Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of educational research, 79(1), 491-525. [DOI:10.3102/0034654308325693]
30. Jerusalem, M., & Schwarzer, R. (1981). Fragebogen zur Erfassung von" Selbstwirksamkeit. Skalen zur Befindlichkeit und Persoenlichkeit In R. Schwarzer (Hrsg.).(Forschungsbericht No. 5). Berlin: Freie Universitaet, Institut fuer Psychologie.
31. Johnson, B., Down, B., Le Cornu, R., Peters, J., Sullivan, A., Pearce, J., & Hunter, J. (2014). Promoting early career teacher resilience: A framework for understanding and acting. Teachers and Teaching, 20(5), 530-546. [DOI:10.1080/13540602.2014.937957]
32. Kapa, E. (2001). A metacognitive support during the process of problem solving in a computerized environment. Educational studies in mathematics, 47(3), 317-336. [DOI:10.1023/A:1015124013119]
33. Karademir, C. A. (2019). Pre-service teachers' problem solving skills and curiosity levels. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 5(1), 151-164. [DOI:10.12973/ijem.5.1.163]
34. KARAOĞLAN-YILMAZ, F. G., Yilmaz, R., Üstün, A. B., & Keser, H. (2019). Examination of critical thinking standards and academic self-efficacy of teacher candidates as a predictor of metacognitive thinking skills through structural equation modelling. Journal of Theoretical Educational Science, 12(4), 1239-1256. [DOI:10.30831/akukeg.467435]
35. Kirkley, J., & Foshay, R. (2003). Principles for teaching problem solving. Plato Learning. Inc. Technical Paper: Indiana.
36. Kozikoglu, I. (2019). Investigating Critical Thinking in Prospective Teachers: Metacognitive Skills, Problem Solving Skills and Academic Self-Efficacy. Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 10(2), 111-130.
37. Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and psychological measurement, 30(3), 607-610. [DOI:10.1177/001316447003000308]
38. Lacaba, T. V. G., Lacaba, A. B., & Caliwan, M. A. (2020). TEACHERS'RESILIENCE: A CHALLENGE OF COMMITMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS. International Journal of Research-GRANTHAALAYAH, 8(4), 79-88. [DOI:10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i4.2020.10]
39. Lee, O. (2005). Science education with English language learners: Synthesis and research agenda. Review of educational research, 75(4), 491-530. [DOI:10.3102/00346543075004491]
40. Mayer, R. E. (1985). Implications of cognitive psychology for instruction in mathematical problem solving. Teaching and learning mathematical problem solving: Multiple research perspectives, 123-138.
41. McCarthy, C. J., Lambert, R. G., Crowe, E. W., & McCarthy, C. J. (2010). Coping, stress, and job satisfaction as predictors of advanced placement statistics teachers' intention to leave the field. Nassp Bulletin, 94(4), 306-326. [DOI:10.1177/0192636511403262]
42. McCormick, J., & Barnett, K. (2011). Teachers' attributions for stress and their relationships with burnout. International journal of educational management. [DOI:10.1108/09513541111120114]
43. Montgomery, C., & Rupp, A. A. (2005). A meta-analysis for exploring the diverse causes and effects of stress in teachers. Canadian Journal of Education/Revue canadienne de l'éducation, 458-486. [DOI:10.2307/4126479]
44. Paglis, L. L., & Green, S. G. (2002). Leadership self‐efficacy and managers' motivation for leading change. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 23(2), 215-235. [DOI:10.1002/job.137]
45. Polat, D. D., & İskender, M. (2018). Exploring teachers' resilience in relation to job satisfaction, burnout, organizational commitment and perception of organizational climate. International Journal of Psychology and Educational Studies, 5(3), 1-13. [DOI:10.17220/ijpes.2018.03.001]
46. Razmjoo, S. A., & Ayoobiyan, H. (2019). On the relationship between teacher resilience and self-efficacy: The case of Iranian EFL teachers. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, 11(23), 277-292.
47. Roeser, R. W., Skinner, E., Beers, J., & Jennings, P. A. (2012). Mindfulness training and teachers' professional development: An emerging area of research and practice. Child development perspectives, 6(2), 167-173. [DOI:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2012.00238.x]
48. Sharp, J. E., & Rhinehart, A. J. (2018). Infusing mindfulness and character strengths in supervision to promote beginning supervisee development. Journal of Counselor Practice, 9(1), 64-80.
49. Shieh, R.-S., & Chang, W. (2014). Fostering student's creative and problem-solving skills through a hands-on activity. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 13(5), 650. [DOI:10.33225/jbse/14.13.650]
50. Smith, R., Lynch, D., & Knight, B. (2007). Learning Management: Transitioning teachers for national and international change: CQUniversity.
51. Tait, M. (2008). Resilience as a contributor to novice teacher success, commitment, and retention. Teacher Education Quarterly, 35(4), 57-75.
52. Taylor, J. L. (2013). The Power of Resilience: A Theoretical Model to Empower, Encourage and Retain Teachers. Qualitative Report, 18, 70.
53. Ültay, E. (2017). Examination of context-based problem-solving abilities of pre-service physics teachers. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 16(1), 113. [DOI:10.33225/jbse/17.16.113]
54. Wang, Y., & Derakhshan, A. (2021). Review of the book Professional development of CLIL teachers, by YY Lo. Hoboken: International Journal of Applied Linguistics.
55. Xie, F., & Derakhshan, A. (2021). A conceptual review of positive teacher interpersonal communication behaviors in the instructional context. Frontiers in Psychology, 2623. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.708490]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2023 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Evolutionary and Educational Psychology Journal

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb